Bandits or States? Armed Groups’ Expropriation Strategies and the Economy: Evidence from Eastern Congo

Research Note
Published on 26 June 2014


This study collected yearly historical data on 140 rural villages in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo to identify the conditions under which armed groups can create institutions favorable to private sector development in areas over which the central state has little or no authority. A new survey instrument aimed at reducing measurement error in historical and sensitive data was designed specifically for this project.