Informality

Small Enterprise Emergency Financial Assistance

The study estimates the relative impacts of three different implementation methods of small enterprise emergency financial assistance in Ghana.

Research Project
30 Jun 2020

Value of Formalization for Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Contexts: A Review and Research Agenda

Formalization is constantly being proposed as being of great benefit to business expansion and success.

Journal Article
1 Jan 2019

Entry Regulation and the Formalization of Microenterprises in Developing Countries

Is there a policy rationale for actively trying to encourage small firms to formalise? In the last two decades, hundreds of regulatory reforms have been implemented in countries across the world with the primary objective of making it easier to formally register a business.

Policy Insight
1 Dec 2018

Exit from Informality: The Stick Treatment

Most firms are informal throughout the developing world; and most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) (60-80%) do not register with tax authorities, lowering the tax base. This remains a persistent phenomenon despite the numerous attempts made to encourage registration.

Research Note
7 Feb 2017

Enhancing the Benefits of Formalization: Experimental Evidence from the Introduction of the Entreprenant Status in Benin

Using a randomized experiment, the authors show that enhancing the benefits of formalization through personalized assistance induces more firms to formalize.

Research Note
11 Jan 2017

Can Enhancing the Benefits of Formalization Induce Informal Firms to Become Formal? Experimental Evidence from Benin

Governments around the world have introduced reforms to attempt to make it easier for informal firms to formalize. However, most informal firms have not gone on to become formal, especially when tax registration is involved.

Working Paper
1 Nov 2016

Transitioning into the Formal - Women Entrepreneurs in the Informal Economy of Nepal

This qualitative study aims to understand how and why different groups of informal women entrepreneurs in Nepal engage with, or make the transition to the formal sector

Research Note
5 May 2016

Rethinking Indonesia's Informal Sector

This paper, published in World Development reviews competing theories about the causes of informality in developing countries and uses new data to determine which theory best explains the persistence and scale of Indonesia’s informal sector.

Journal Article
1 Apr 2016

Finding a Path to Formalization in Benin: Early Results after the Introduction of the Entreprenant Legal Status

In April 2014, the Government of Benin launched the entreprenant status, a simplified and free legal regime offered to small informal businesses to enter the formal economy.

Working Paper
1 Dec 2015

The Value of Formalization for Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Contexts - A Review and Research Agenda

This synthesis review looks to extend the theoretical approaches to explaining the value of formalisation, with an emphasis on women in the informal sector.

Research Project
1 Sep 2015

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