Propagation of taste for climate resilience: evidence from cocoa value chain in Ghana

Research Note
Published on 15 March 2024


While Sub-Saharan African countries are increasingly vulnerable to climate change, they also face lower marginal cost for carbon reduction. Existing studies point to payment for ecosystem services (PES) as a way of incentivizing reforestation, but it remains unknown whether market-based payment structure affects the cost-effectiveness, and if so, how it relates to heterogeneity in participants' beliefs. In this project, we investigate the cost-effectiveness of different PES policies for shade tree planting by cocoa farmers in Ghana, considering target population's heterogeneous beliefs about climate change risks and adaptation benefits.


Yunyu Shu

Brown University

Jiayue Zhang

Brown University