Complementarity in firm-level innovation strategies: a comparative study of Kenya and Nigeria

Journal Article
Published on 1 January 2016


In this paper published in Innovation and Development, Egbetokun, Mendi and Mudida (2015) present and analyse firm-level innovation data from Kenya and Nigeria. The authors test for the existence of complementarities between internal R&D and external innovation activities, and between organizational and marketing innovations. Some evidence is found on the existence of complementarities between internal and external technological innovation strategies in the case of Kenya, but not in the case of Nigeria. However, organizational and marketing innovations do not appear to be complementary in innovation either in Kenya or in Nigeria.


Abiodun Egbetokun

De Montfort University

Pedro Mendi

University of Navarra

Robert Mudida

Strathmore University